Tomie has argued that when such cues are embedded in the device that delivers a drug, such as specialized glassware used to consume alcohol or pipes used to smoke cocaine, these cues can promote especially compulsive patterns of behavior characteristic of addiction. Still other dogs vacillated, looking back and forth between the bell and the food pan.
One would expect that if the pigeons were able to quit responding to the distant CS and consequentially retrieve and consume the reward they would do so. Such stimuli can have a powerful influence on drug-seeking behavior. Indeed, in a review Everitt and Robbins duly noted pg.
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There have, however, been a few studies on the conditions that favor a sign-tracking vs.
In this situation non-contingent drug administration is paired with placement into a specific context place , and saline with another, and on a test day animals have access to both places. This not only revealed the complexity of the CRs that develop, but also large individual differences.
He reported that during CS presentation some rats approached and contacted the lever and went to the food tray after CS offset, similar to what had been described previously Hearst and Jenkins, In contrast, Locurto et al.
More recently, Krank and colleagues unambiguously demonstrated the ability of an ethanol-paired cue light to elicit sign-tracking behavior in rats using unsweetened ethanol solution as the US. This apparently compulsive pattern of responding is similar to that seen in addiction in that it is triggered by an impulse determined by past experience and seems to be relatively independent of volition Tomie,
For example, Cunningham et al.