Sources of variation are diverse, but may be viewed over three dimensions — how classes of registrants are distinguished from one another, the criteria used in the classification process, and the processes applied in classification decisions. Prior to , only a few states required convicted sex offenders to register their addresses with local law enforcement.
The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in ,  and in another report in States had a certain time period to enact the legislation, along with guidelines established by the Attorney General.
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His whereabouts remained unknown for nearly 27 years until remains were discovered just outside Paynesville, Minnesota in Almost half of those imprisoned for child-victim cases, offended against their own child or other relative.
Despite the public perception of sex offenders as having high recidivism, sex offenders had the second lowest recidivism rate, after only murderers, but sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for a sexual offense after their discharge from prison. In some states non-sexual offenses such as unlawful imprisonment may require sex offender registration.
Several challenges to some parts of state level sex offender laws have succeeded, however. Other jurisdictions utilize various risk assessments that consider factors that scientific research has linked to sexual recidivism risk, such as age, number of prior sex offenses, victim gender, relationship to the victim, and indicators of psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal. Currently, the means of public notification includes sex offender websites in all states, the District of Columbia, and some territories.
These disparities in state legislation have caused unexpected problems to some registrants when moving from state to another, finding themselves subject to public disclosure on their destination state's sex offender website, and longer registration periods sometimes for life , even though they originally were excluded from public registry and required to register for a shorter period. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing. SORNA provides uniform minimum guidelines for registration of sex offenders, regardless of the state they live in.
In some states, they may also be barred from voting after a sentence has been completed and, at the federal level, barred from owning firearms, like all felons. They call the laws too harsh and unfair for adversely affecting the lives of registrants decades after completing their initial sentence , and for affecting their families as well. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language.